Evidence Based Management (EBM).
Hvad er EBM?
Den grundlæggende idé med Evidence Based Management er, at beslutninger af god kvalitet skal være baseret på en kombination af kritisk tænkning og de bedst tilgængelige beviser. Selvom alle ledere til tider bruger evidens i deres beslutninger, er mange ikke opmærksomme på kvaliteten af evidensen. Resultatet er derfor tit dårlige beslutninger baseret på ubegrundede overbevisninger, modeluner og ideer, der er populariseret af ledelsesguruer. Det resulterer i dårlige resultater, samt en begrænset forståelse af, hvorfor ting går galt.
Evidence Based Management søger at forbedre den måde, beslutninger træffes på. EBM er en tilgang til beslutningstagning og den daglige praksis, der hjælper ledere og organisationer med kritisk at evaluere, i hvilket omfang de kan stole på den evidens, de har. Det hjælper også ledere med at identificere, finde og evaluere yderligere evidens, som er relevant for deres beslutninger.
Vi bruger følgende definition af Evidence Based Management, som også beskriver de vigtigste færdigheder, der kræves for at praktisere ledelse på en evidensbaseret måde:
Evidence Based Management is about making decisions through the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the best available evidence to increase the likelihood of a favorable outcome from multiple sources by
1. Asking: translating a practical issue or problem into an answerable question
2. Acquiring: systematically searching for and retrieving the evidence
3. Appraising: critically judging the trustworthiness and relevance of the evidence
4. Aggregating: weighing and pulling together the evidence
5. Applying: incorporating the evidence into the decision-making process
6. Assessing: evaluating the outcome of the decision taken
Hvorfor er EBM nødvendigt?
Most management decisions are not based on the best available evidence. Instead, practitioners often prefer to make decisions rooted solely in their personal experience. However, personal judgment alone is not a very reliable source of evidence because it is highly susceptible to systematic errors – cognitive and information-processing limits make us prone to biases that have negative effects on the quality of the decisions we make. Even practitioners and industry experts with many years of experience are poor at making forecasts or calculating risks when relying solely on their personal judgment.
Practitioners frequently also take the work practices of other organizations as evidence. Through benchmarking and so-called ‘best practices’ practitioners sometimes copy what other organizations are doing without critically evaluating whether these practices are actually effective and, if they are, whether they are also likely to work in a different context. Benchmarking can demonstrate alternative ways of doing things, but it is not necessarily a good indicator in itself of what would work in a different setting.
At the same time there are many barriers to evidence-based practice. Few practitioners have been trained in the skills required to critically evaluate the trustworthiness and relevance of the information they use and most practitioners pay little or no attention to evidence from the scientific literature or from the organization, placing instead too much trust in low-quality evidence, such as personal judgment and experience, ‘best practices’ and the beliefs of corporate leaders. As a result, billions of dollars are spent on management practices that are ineffective or even harmful to organizations, their members and their clients.
Hvad tæller som evidens?
When we say ‘evidence’’, we mean information, facts or data supporting (or contradicting) a claim, assumption or hypothesis. Evidence may come from scientific research suggesting generally applicable facts about the world, people, or organisational practices.
Evidence may also come from company metrics or observations of practice conditions. Even professional experience can be an important source of evidence, for example, an entrepreneur’s past experience of setting up a variety of businesses should indicate the approach that is likely to be the most successful. Regardless of its source, all evidence may be included as long as it is judged to be trustworthy and relevant.
Instead of basing a decision on personal judgment alone, an evidence-based practitioner finds out what is known by looking for evidence from multiple sources. According to the principles of Evidence Based Management, evidence from four sources should be taken into account:
Practitioners - The professional experience and judgment of practitioners
Scientific literature - Findings from empirical studies published in academic journals
Stakeholders - The values and concerns of people who may be affected by the decision
The organization - Data, facts and figures gathered from the organization
Hvad er næste trin?
Erstat konventionel viden med evidensbaseret fakta
Kontakt SCEBM for at starte ikke kun din, men også din organisations rejse på at blive en evidensbaseret organisation.